The incidence of diabetes mellitus increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. The increase due to population growth, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes also associated with other complications,  retinopathy, nephropathy, coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and cerebral vascular diseases. In general, diabetes categorized into two types: insulin-dependent Type-I and non-insulin dependent (insulin-resistant) Type-II. Type-II insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes.

Animal models produced spontaneously by selective inbreeding and or by genetic modification plays important role in understanding the pathogenesis and its complications. The selection of the model depends on the purpose of the study.

Invitek offers Animal models of both Type I and Type II Diabetes for screening, testing and evaluating the efficacy of new anti-diabetic drugs and formulations.

Efficacy Models

TYPE I Diabetes

  • NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic)┬ámouse model
  • STZ (Streptozotocin)-Induced mouse model
  • STZ (Streptozotocin)-Induced rat model

TYPE II Diabetes

  • Db/db mouse model
  • Ob/ob mouse model and
  • DIO- Diet-Induced Obesity model
  • ZDF-Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat model
  • GK-Goto-Kakisaki rat model

Diabetic Nephropathy Models

  • db/db mouse model
  • STZ rat model

Diabetic Wound Healing Models

  • db/db mouse model
  • STZ rat model
  • ZDF rat model

Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp (HEGC) Study

Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp, or insulin clamp, is the most useful means of assessing insulin action in vivo.  During an insulin clamp, hyperinsulinemia is accomplished by a constant insulin infusion. Euglycemia is maintained through concomitant glucose infusion at a variable rate. This variable glucose infusion rate (GIR) is determined by measuring blood glucose at different intervals throughout the experiment and adjusting the GIR accordingly. The GIR is indicative of whole-body insulin action, as the animal with enhanced insulin action requires a greater GIR.

Insulin sensitivity calculated by GIR from the concentration of glucose solution that is infused, flow rate, the time between change of flow rates, and weight of animals.

Glucose Tolerance Test

The glucose tolerance test (GTT) used to measure individuals with normal or impaired glucose tolerance with Type II diabetes. Glucose concentration and insulin levels measured at different time points after glucose administration.

Invitek offers Glucose Tolerance Test in the various strain of mice and rats such as db/db, ob/ob, DIO, STZ and DIO rats, and ZDF fa/fa rats through following the route of glucose administration.

  • OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)
  • IPGTT (Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test) and
  • IVGTT (Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test)